From Policies to Actions

Mayoral Leadership and Local Government's Impact on Urban Resilience in Indonesia


  • Faruq Ibnul Haqi University of South Australia



Political Leadership, Policymaking Process, Mayor, Urban Resilience, Local Governement, Resilience Planning


Indonesia's governance landscape embraces local governance and decentralization, empowering local authorities to tailor urban policies to their specific contexts. Decentralization provides the flexibility needed for crafting contextually relevant urban policies, while effective urban governance ensures responsible resource allocation and participatory decision-making. These intertwined elements mutually reinforce urban development and resilience. Local governance is pivotal in fostering community engagement and accountability, facilitating inclusive policymaking. National leadership provides overarching policy guidance, while local governments collaborate with stakeholders, including community representatives, civil society, and the private sector, to ensure policy relevance and local ownership. This paper examines the Indonesian urban policy formulation process, focusing on the influential role of mayoral leadership. It highlights the significance of local governance structures in crafting resilience-oriented urban policies. Employing qualitative content analysis approach to scrutinize policy documents and scholarly works, the paper sheds light on the complexities of policy development. The study accentuates the significance of mayoral leadership and participatory governance in advancing urban resilience. It reveals that involving a broad range of stakeholders in policymaking empowers local communities and drives sustainable urban development. The research illustrates the combined impact of political leadership and agile governance in maximizing decentralization's advantages, leading to urban policies rooted in resilience that resonate with the community's specific needs. 


Abdillah, A, Buchari, RA, Widianingsih, I & Nurasa, H 2023, 'Climate change governance for urban resilience for Indonesia: a systematic literature review', Cogent Social Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 2235170.

Abidin, HZ, Andreas, H, Gumilar, I, Fukuda, Y, Pohan, YE & Deguchi, T 2011, 'Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development', Natural hazards (Dordrecht), vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1753-71.

Akbar, A, Flacke, J, Martinez, J & van Maarseveen, MFAM 2020, 'Participatory planning practice in rural Indonesia: a sustainable development goals-based evaluation', Community development (Columbus, Ohio), vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 243-60.

Alm, J & Indrawati, SM 2004, 'Decentralization and local government borrowing in Indonesia', in J Alm, J Martinez-Vazquez & SM Indrawati (eds), Reforming intergovernmental fiscal relations and the rebuilding: the 'big bang' program and its economic consequences, Edward Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 234-60.

Archer, D, Almansi, F, DiGregorio, M, Roberts, D, Sharma, D & Syam, D 2014, 'Moving towards inclusive urban adaptation: approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale', Climate and Development, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 345-56.

Ariando, W 2018, 'A review of climate change adaptation policy for indigenous peoples In Indonesia', ASEAN/Asian Academic Society International Conference pp. 137-47.

Bank, W 2020, Indonesia economic prospects, december 2020: towards a secure and fast recovery, World Bank, Jakarta. .

Bappenas 2019, Pedoman musrenbangnas 2019 (guidelines on national development plans deliberation 2019), Bappenas, Jakarta.

BPS 2015, Proyeksi penduduk Indonesia 2015-2045 berdasarkan hasil SUPAS 2015 (The projected population of Indonesia in 2015-2045 based on the 2015 SUPAS' results), BPS, Jakarta.

Bunnell, T, Miller, MA, Phelps, NA & Taylor, J 2013, 'Urban development in a decentralized Indonesia: two success stories?', Pacific Affairs, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 857-76.

Crabtree, BF & Miller, WL 2022, Doing qualitative research, Sage publications,

Darmawan, R 2008, 'The practice of decentralization in Indonesia and its implication on local competitiveness', Public Governance Study, School of Management and Governance, University of Twente, Enschede.

de León, JCV, Bogardi, J, Dannenmann, S & Basher, R 2006, 'Early warning systems in the context of disaster risk management', Entwicklung and Ländlicher Raum, vol. 2, pp. 23-25.

Dean, J & Elliott, S 2012, 'Prioritizing obesity in the city', Journal of Urban Health, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 196-213.

Dempsey, N, Bramley, G, Power, S & Brown, C 2011, 'The social dimension of sustainable development: defining urban social sustainability', Sustainable development, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 289-300.

Dewita, Y, Burke, M & Yen, BTH 2020, 'The relationship between transport, housing and urban form: affordability of transport and housing in Indonesia', Case studies on transport policy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 252-62.

Dixon, G & Hakim, D 2009, 'Making Indonesia's budget decentralization work: the challenge of linking planning and budgeting at the local level', in C Wescott, B Bowornwathana & LR Jones (eds), The many faces of public management reform in the Asia-Pacific region, vol. 18, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 207-45.

Djalante, R & Thomalla, F 2012, 'Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Indonesia: institutional challenges and opportunities for integration', International journal of disaster resilience in the built environment, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 166-80.

Engdaw, B 2022, 'The effect of administrative decentralization on quality public service delivery in Bahir Dar city administration: the case of Belay Zeleke sub-city', Cogent Social Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1.

Fahmi, FZ, Prawira, MI, Hudalah, D & Firman, T 2015, 'Leadership and collaborative planning: the case of Surakarta, Indonesia', Planning Theory, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 294-315.

Firman, T 2004, 'Major issues in Indonesia's urban land development', Land Use Policy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 347-55.

Firman, T 2009, 'Decentralization reform and local‐government proliferation in Indonesia: towards a fragmentation of regional development', Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies: Journal of the Applied Regional Science Conference (ARSC), vol. 21, no. 2‐3, pp. 143-57.

Firman, T 2013, 'Territorial splits (pemekaran daerah) in decentralising Indonesia, 2000–2012: local development drivers or hindrance?', Space and Polity, vol. 17, no. 2, 2013/08/01, pp. 180-96.

Freeman, L 2001, 'The effects of sprawl on neighborhood social ties: an explanatory analysis', Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 69-77.

Ghuman, BS & Singh, R 2013, 'Decentralization and delivery of public services in Asia', Policy and Society, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 7-21.

Hackett, C 2018, Which 7 countries hold half the world’s population?, Pew Research Center, Washington, viewed 30 October 2022, <>.

Handayani, W, Fisher, MR, Rudiarto, I, Setyono, JS & Foley, D 2019, 'Operationalizing resilience: a content analysis of flood disaster planning in two coastal cities in Central Java, Indonesia', International journal of disaster risk reduction, vol. 35, p. 101073.

Haqi, FI 2016, 'Sustainable urban development and social sustainability in the urban context', EMARA: Indonesian Journal of Architecture, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21-26.

Haqi, FI & Pandangwati, ST 2021, 'Mayoral leadership in shaping urban beautification in Surabaya and aspects influencing its capacity', EMARA: Indonesian Journal of Architecture, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 91-104.

Haqi, FI & Dühr, S 2022, 'The role of political leadership in shaping integrated urban policy frameworks in the City of Semarang, Indonesia', in T Chaiechi & J Wood (eds), Community Empowerment, Sustainable Cities, and Transformative Economies, Springer, Singapore, pp. 551-70.

Haryanto, B 2018, 'Climate change and urban air pollution health impacts in Indonesia', in R Akhtar & C Palagiano (eds), Climate change and air pollution: The impact on human health in developed and developing countries, Springer International Publishing, New York, pp. 215-39.

Irvine, J 2008, 'A changing climate for urban design: an examination of the New Zealand regulatory approach', New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 12, pp. 277-313.

Iswanto, Rahmani, S & Roitman, S 2018, 'Sukunan village, Yogyakarta, Indonesia: environmental sustainability through community-based waste management and eco-tourism', in S Darchen & G Searle (eds), Global planning innovations for urban sustainability, 1 edn, Routledge, pp. 90-105.

Jones, GW 1988, 'Urbanization trends in Southeast Asia: some issues for policy', Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 137-54.

Jurnali, T & Siti-Nabiha, A 2015, 'Performance management system for local government: the Indonesian experience', Global Business Review, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 351-63.

Karman, MM, Yazid, S & Widian, R 2022, 'Deliberative democracy in action: the case of musrenbang in Bandung, Indonesia', Asian International Studies Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 113-36.

Keban, YT 2019, 'The complexities of regional development planning reform: the Indonesian case', Policy & Governance Review, vol. 3, no. 1, 2019-04-15, pp. 12-25.

Kimura, E 2013, Political change and territoriality in Indonesia : provincial proliferation, Routledge, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.

King, D, Gurtner, Y, Firdaus, A, Harwood, S & Cottrell, A 2016, 'Land use planning for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: operationalizing policy and legislation at local levels', International journal of disaster resilience in the built environment, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 158-72.

Koohsari, MJ, Mavoa, S, Villanueva, K, Sugiyama, T, Badland, H, Kaczynski, AT, Owen, N & Giles-Corti, B 2015, 'Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda', Health & Place, vol. 33, pp. 75-82.

Kusumasari, B & Alam, Q 2012, 'Bridging the gaps: the role of local government capability and the management of a natural disaster in Bantul, Indonesia', Natural hazards, vol. 60, pp. 761-79.

MacDonald Gibson, J, Rodriguez, D, Dennerlein, T, Mead, J, Hasch, T, Meacci, G & Levin, S 2015, 'Predicting urban design effects on physical activity and public health: a case study', Health & Place, vol. 35, pp. 79-84.

McLellan, B 2018, Sustainable future for human security society, cities and governance, 1st edn, Springer, Singapore.

Measey, M 2010, 'Indonesia: a vulnerable country in the face of climate change', Global Majority E-Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31-45.

Metternicht, G 2018, Land use and spatial planning: enabling sustainable management of land resources, Springer,

Michael, RJV 2013, Indonesian politics under Suharto: the rise and fall of the new order, Taylor and Francis,

Minnery, J, Argo, T, Winarso, H, Hau, D, Veneracion, CC, Forbes, D & Childs, I 2013, 'Slum upgrading and urban governance: case studies in three South East Asian cities', Habitat International, vol. 39, 2013/07/01/, pp. 162-69.

Mookherjee, D, Hoerauf, E, Freelan, S & McAuley, M 2006, 'Urban growth and metropolitan sprawl in a small metropolitan area', Focus On Geography, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 29-37.

Morrell, E, Tuerah, N & Sumarto, HS 2011, 'Local authority and pro-poor urban management in Indonesia's transition to democracy', International development planning review, vol. 33, no. 1.

Nasution, A 2017, The government decentralization program in Indonesia, 601, Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), Tokyo, pp. 276-305.

Negara, SD & Hutchinson, FE 2021, 'The impact of Indonesia’s decentralization reforms two decades on: introduction', ASEAN economic bulletin, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 289-95.

Ostojic, D, Bose, R & Krambeck, H 2013, Energizing green cities in Southeast Asia : applying sustainable urban energy and emissions planning, World Bank Publications, Washington, District of Columbia.

Ostwald, K, Tajima, Y & Samphantharak, K 2016, 'Indonesia's decentralization experiment: motivations, successes, and unintended consequences', ASEAN economic bulletin, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 139-56.

Padawangi, R 2019, Routledge handbook of urbanization in Southeast Asia, 1 edn, Routledge, London.

Peraturan menteri pekerjaan umum nomor 17 tahun 2009 tentang pedoman penyusunan rencana tata ruang wilayah kota (Ministry of public work regulation 17/2009 on guidelines for preparing urban spatial planning) (Jakarta, Indonesia)

Permana, AS, Towolioe, S, Aziz, NA & Ho, CS 2015, 'Sustainable solid waste management practices and perceived cleanliness in a low income city', Habitat International, vol. 49, pp. 197-205.

Prasetiyo, WH, Kamarudin, KR & Dewantara, JA 2019, 'Surabaya green and clean: protecting urban environment through civic engagement community', Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, pp. 1-18.

Prianto, AL & Abdillah, A 2022, 'Resilient cities, vulnerable communities: disaster governance in the coastal cities in Indonesia', in A Singh (ed), International Handbook of Disaster Research, Springer Nature Singapore, Singapore, pp. 1-12.

Pribadi, DO & Pauleit, S 2015, 'The dynamics of peri-urban agriculture during rapid urbanization of Jabodetabek metropolitan area', Land Use Policy, vol. 48, pp. 13-24.

Purbani, K 2017, 'Collaborative planning for city development. a perspective from a city planner', Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 136-47.

Rai, NK, Rim, KI, Wulandari, EW, Subrata, F, Sugihantono, A & Sitohang, V 2020, 'Strengthening emergency preparedness and response systems: experience from Indonesia', WHO South-East Asia journal of public health, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 26-31.

Roitman, S & Rukmana, D 2022, Routledge handbook of urban Indonesia, Taylor and Francis, Milton.

Salim, W & Drenth, M 2020, 'Local governance and access to urban services: political and social inclusion in Indonesia', in S Cheema (ed), Governance for urban services: access, participation, accountability, and transparency, Springer, Singapore, pp. 153-83.

Salim, W & Hudalah, D 2020, 'Urban governance challenges and reforms in Indonesia: towards a new urban agenda', in D Bharat & D Ashok (eds), New Urban Agenda in Asia-Pacific: Governance for Sustainable and Inclusive Cities, Springer, SIngapore, pp. 163-81.

Shima, N, Seta, F & Kidokoro, T 2005, 'Alteration of Indonesia's decentralization and development planning system: outline of decentralization laws in 2004 and law on national development planning system', Reports of the City Planning Institute of Japan, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 9-12.

Siagian, TH, Purhadi, P, Suhartono, S & Ritonga, H 2014, 'Social vulnerability to natural hazards in Indonesia: driving factors and policy implications', Natural hazards, vol. 70, pp. 1603-17.

Silas, J 1989, 'Marginal settlements in Surabaya, Indonesia: problem or potential?', Environment & Urbanization, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 60-70.

Sofhani, T 2006, Toward empowered participatory planning: the role of planners in the local planning paradigm change in Indonesia, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Sufri, S, Dwirahmadi, F, Phung, D & Rutherford, S 2020, 'Enhancing community engagement in disaster early warning system in Aceh, Indonesia: opportunities and challenges', Natural hazards, vol. 103, pp. 2691-709.

Surya, B, Saleh, H, Suriani, S, Sakti, HH, Hadijah, H & Idris, M 2020, 'Environmental pollution control and sustainability management of slum settlements in Makassar City, South Sulawesi, Indonesia', Land, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 279.

Sutanta, H, Rajabifard, A & Bishop, ID 2010, 'Integrating spatial planning and disaster risk reduction at the local level in the context of spatially enabled government', Spatially enabling society: Research, emerging trends and critical assessment, vol. 1, pp. 56-68.

Sutarto, R & Jarvie, J 2012, Integrating climate resilience strategy into city planning in Semarang, Indonesia, 1, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Talitha, T, Firman, T & Hudalah, D 2020, 'Welcoming two decades of decentralization in Indonesia: a regional development perspective', Territory, politics, governance, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 690-708.

Tanner, T, Mitchell, T, Polack, E & Guenther, B 2009, 'Urban governance for adaptation: assessing climate change resilience in ten Asian cities', IDS Working Papers, vol. 2009, no. 315, pp. 01-47.

Taufiq, M, Suhirman, S, Sofhani, TF & Kombaitan, B 2021, 'Towards deliberative ideals with informality: a practical study of rural planning in indonesia', Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 13-23.

Teriman, S, Yigitcanlar, T & Mayere, S 2011, 'Social infrastructure planning and sustainable community: example from South East Queensland, Australia', Business and Social Science Research Conference 2011, World Journal of Social Sciences, pp. 23-32.

Tomsa, D 2018, 'Regime resilience and presidential politics in Indonesia', Contemporary Politics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 266-85.

Turok, I & McGranahan, G 2013, 'Urbanization and economic growth: the arguments and evidence for Africa and Asia', Environment and Urbanization, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 465-82.

UN 2019, World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision, ST/ESA/SER.A/420, United Nations, New York.

Vidyattama, Y 2021, 'Decentralization and fiscal autonomy at the subnational level in Indonesia', ASEAN economic bulletin, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 320-35.

Wicaksono, AA 2020, 'Urban river governance through community movement to increase the adaptive capacity to climate change of the poor: a case study of Yogyakarta', IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing, p. 012003.

Widianingsih, I & Morrell, E 2007, 'Participatory planning in Indonesia: seeking a new path to democracy', Policy Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1-15.

Wijaya, N, Bisri, MBF, Aritenang, AF & Mariany, A 2017, 'Spatial planning, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation integration in Indonesia: progress, challenges, and approach', Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges, and Issues, pp. 235-52.

Wijaya, N, Nitivattananon, V, Shrestha, RP & Kim, SM 2020, 'Drivers and benefits of integrating climate adaptation measures into urban development: experience from coastal cities of Indonesia', Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 750.

Witoelar, E 2014, 'Good urban governance for city innovation', viewed 5 March 2020, <>.

Yazid, S & K. Pakpahan, A 2020, 'Democratization in Indonesia: Strong State and Vibrant Civil Society', Asian affairs, an American review (New York), vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 71-96.

Zhu, J & Simarmata, HA 2015, 'Formal land rights versus informal land rights: governance for sustainable urbanization in the Jakarta metropolitan region, Indonesia', Land Use Policy, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 63-73.




How to Cite

Haqi, F. I. (2023). From Policies to Actions: Mayoral Leadership and Local Government’s Impact on Urban Resilience in Indonesia. Journal of Resilient Economies (ISSN: 2653-1917), 3(2).