Journal of Resilient Economies (ISSN: 2653-1917) <p>What does it take to build a resilient economy? From natural disasters to pandemics, economies and the associated businesses, industries, occupations, and communities can be vulnerable to a range of external risks. The Journal of Resilient Economies (JRE), is a Platinum Open Access journal, with a multidisciplinary focus to further advance the important concept of resilience. JRE does not charge either the readers or the authors. This ensures all accepted articles will be immediately and permanently available to readers free of charge.</p> <p>The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and economic resilience are intertwined. Accordingly, SDGs are an integral part of JRE policy and focus. As part of the commitment to this global agenda, JRE is committed to making significant contributions to the literature around the SDGs and their connections to resilience. </p> <p><strong>Who funds this Journal?</strong></p> <p>Publication infrastructure and maintenance of JRE is fully supported by <a href="">James Cook University Open Journal Systems (OJS)</a>, driven by the belief that knowledge has the power to change lives, and that research outputs should be freely accessible online, without barriers.</p> <p>JRE aims to make the academic research available:</p> <ul> <li>online</li> <li>immediately</li> <li>without charge</li> <li>free from most copyright or licensing restrictions</li> </ul> <p>Read the complete version of JCU Open Access Policy and related documents <a href="">here</a>.</p> James Cook University en-US Journal of Resilient Economies (ISSN: 2653-1917) 2653-1917 <ol> <li><strong><em>Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)</em></strong>: lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honour or reputation.</li> <li><strong><em>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)</em></strong>: for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provide they do not alter or modify the article.</li> </ol> Regional/Rural Workforce Transitions for Post-COVID-19 Resilience <p>The pandemic has intensified the way we think about global challenges. Humanity now faces a ‘triple conjuncture’ of global crises: climate change and ecological breakdown; a systemic crisis of global capitalism; and the current global Coronavirus pandemic (Gills, 2020). The impacts of the pandemic are not experienced uniformly. They are amplified by social and economic vulnerabilities, labour market structures, precarious employment in some industries, and pre-existing inequities (Babacan et al., 2021, Spash, 2020). Regional/rural economies in Australia have undergone significant structural change and adjustment in the last three decades. Economies also have distinct characteristics and diverse strengths and needs and have been experiencing economic change at different magnitudes, speeds and intensities. Climate change is one of the greatest ecological events of our time. Scientists continue to give dire warnings about climate change amidst major global debate about the nature and extent of climate change.&nbsp; How well a place or region can adapt is complex. A study into the adaptive capacity of regions showed a strong correlation between low levels of adaptive capacity and remoteness (Productivity Commission 2017). Factors that contribute to adaptive capacity are linked to education, skills, levels of income, employment, health, access to infrastructure and services, and natural resources. Alarmingly, most of rural and regional Queensland falls below average adaptive capacity. Addressing future policy and regulatory challenges for the future of work requires a more in-depth understanding of the fragmentation impacts of work, changing employer arrangements and workplaces, and workers’ conditions across different regional/rural locales.&nbsp;</p> Hurriyet Babacan Copyright (c) 2022 Hurriyet Babacan 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3905 The Role of Urban Agriculture in Enhancing Urban Food System Sustainability and Resilience <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">During the COVID-19 pandemic, cities around the world have gone through terrible ordeals. These include a lack of urban resilience in emergency response, food supply, institutional cooperation, economic support, etc. Meanwhile, many urban and global problems have been amplified by the pandemic's impacts on food security issues, the long-term sustainability of food systems, and so on. In response to the recovery agenda of the post-COVID 19 era, rebuilding urban resilience and sustainability through the pathways of sustainable urban food system development has great potential. It is evident that food supports the fundamental needs of people's health and well-being, but cities account for most food consumption, waste, and greenhouse gas emissions. Starting from these considerations, this study investigates how urban agriculture can improve the sustainability and resilience of the urban food system through the analysis of the existing literature. Conducted on April 11, 2022, on the Web of Science database, this literature review includes bibliographic coupling, co-citation analysis, and co-occurrence analysis to map knowledge regarding the role of urban agriculture practices in fostering both urban food systems' 'sustainability' and 'resilience'. The findings of the study highlight different aspects that include more general considerations, e.g., urban agriculture alone cannot substitute large-scale food systems in the short term, but it could be a promising approach in the future, and more detailed aspects, such as the geographical recurrence of this kind of research and the most popular scientific journals addressing these topics.</span></p> Tong Zou Ali Cheshmehzangi Ayotunde Dawodu Eugenio Mangi Copyright (c) 2022 Tong Zou, Ali Cheshmehzangi, Ayotunde Dawodu, Eugenio Mangi 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3906 Influences on Stakeholder Attitudes towards Government’s Great Barrier Reef Regulations <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) off Australia’s east coast is a globally significant marine environment under threat from polluted runoff resulting from adjacent sugarcane farming (Waterhouse et al., 2017). Sustained efforts and investment by all levels of Government over 20 years have challenged the Queensland Sugar Industry to transition towards more sustainable farming practices and reduce non-point source (NPS) pollutant levels from reaching the GBR. In light of the issues outlined by UNESCO concerning the protection of the GBR in its 2011 and 2012 reports (UNESCO, 2011, 2012) and existing government regulations, a scoping review was undertaken to identify the conceptualisation of farmer attitudes to environmental protection, specifically the attitudes to protecting the GBR. It revealed that predominant policy mechanisms across countries are focused on voluntary adoption instruments to mitigate NPS pollution. The review showed that no policy or policy combinations are universally effective in reducing NPS pollution across farmer populations within given geographical locations. It identified behavioural theories that underpin factors influencing the adoption of pro-environmental practices. Additionally, it was found that farmers are heterogeneous in beliefs and attitudes, responding differently to different incentive options and challenging policy framing. Reviewing existing factors surrounding best management practice (BMP) adoption mechanisms exposes additional behavioural concepts, which could lead to improved approaches. Therefore, it is argued for the importance of conducting further research that will advance innovative strategies for achieving balances between the actions of farmers and the sustainability of the environment.</span></p> Martin Drennan Josephine Pryce Copyright (c) 2022 Martin Drennan, Josephine Pryce 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3908 The Tourism Sector Stakeholder Collaboration Role in Post-COVID-19 Economic Recovery of Central Java, Indonesia <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">Pandemic COVID-19 has severely affected the tourism industry worldwide, including Central Java, Indonesia. Hence, this study aims to determine the potency of stakeholders' collaboration in the post-COVID 19 economic recoveries in Central Java. Preliminary data gathering by sequential focus group discussions (SFGD) to identify institutions and their role and objective, followed by a survey with a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Matrix of Alliance and Conflict: Tactics, Objective and Recommendation (MACTOR) method. The result shows that all stakeholders agreed that collaboration is critical in economic recovery, but their roles vary depending on their duties and responsibilities. Based on the influence and dependence map, all stakeholders are into four groups: The first group has the strong influence, namely the Cooperatives and SMSEs Agency and Tourism Agency. The second group has both strong influence and dependence, consisting of the Tourism Village Association, Planning and Development Agency, Industry and Trade Agency, and Hotel and Restaurant Association. The third group has a low influence and high dependence, consisting of the community and the Food Security Agency. The fourth group had both low influence and dependence is banking. In addition, there is no potential conflict among all stakeholders involved that could affect collaboration in the economic recovery. Lastly, future cooperation between the Cooperative and SMSEs Agency and Hotel and Restaurant Association should be encouraged.</span></p> Alfina Handayani Wiwin Widiastuti Agus Hermawan Copyright (c) 2022 Alfina Handayani, Wiwin Widiastuti, Agus Hermawan 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3909 Urban Farming as a Resilient Strategy During COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Urban agriculture has been seen as an essential strategy for enhancing food availability and reducing stress levels for urban households. This paper aims to study the benefits of urban farming and its ability as a resilient strategy, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research used primary and secondary sources to gather relevant data. Primary data was collected through interviews in June-July 2021 and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis found that respondents' perception of urban farming was strongly positive. The paper finds that urban farming could be a resilient strategy since it could reduce stress and increase the community's income. Urban farming could also play a way in increasing people's immunity and health system in urban areas. Therefore, urban farming needs to be supported and assisted by the Government, specifically at the local level.</p> Komalawati Komalawati Sarjana Anggi Sahru Romdon Fransiscus Roedy Hartono Sri Murtiati Forita Dyah Arianti Wahyudi Hariyanto Renie Oelviani Copyright (c) 2022 Komalawati, Sarjana, Anggi Sahru Romdon, Fransiscus Roedy Hartono, Sri Murtiati, Forita Dyah Arianti, Wahyudi Hariyanto, Renie Oelviani 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3910 Entrepreneurial Development in the Indonesian Economy <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">Information and Communication Technology (ICT) cannot be separated from society during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Whole activities are forced to distance themselves, so they have to rely on the existence of the internet, including economic activities through e-commerce. In Indonesia, many internet users become an opportunity for small entrepreneurs, namely Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME), to implement e-commerce. ICT development in Indonesia also still shows inequality, especially between Indonesia's West and East Region. This condition indicates the diversity of characteristics in each region to the level of e-commerce application. This study aims to identify local spatial effects and factors that influence the percentage of MSMEs implementing e-commerce in each province in Indonesia in 2020 using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). The result shows spatial heterogeneity in the model of MSMEs implementing e-commerce percentage. Six regional groups have similar characteristics based on independent variables that significantly affect the MSMEs implementing e-commerce percentage. In most WRI and ERI areas, the MSMEs implementing e-commerce percentage is significantly influenced by the percentage of households that make purchases via the internet. GER of tertiary education growth has a significant effect on whole of the WRI areas. In contrast, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 has a significant effect on most of the ERI areas. Hence, the government needs to pay attention to characteristics of each region for encouraging the development of e-commerce for MSME players in Indonesia, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic.</span></p> Qonita Iman Ernawati Pasaribu Copyright (c) 2022 Qonita Iman, Ernawati Pasaribu 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3911 The Inadequacies of Utility Theory from a Macroeconomic Modelling Perspective <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The paper briefly draws on the work of Marx and Keynes to question the contribution that utility theory has made to Macroeconomics. Contemporary utility-theoretic developments (in Growth Theory and Behavioural Economics) are also examined from a Post-Keynesian, Macroeconomic-Modelling perspective and are found to be wanting. First and foremost, we discuss the implications of using representative agent models in a single good (i.e., corn model) context. In these “Robinson-Crusoe” models, the corn uneaten automatically becomes the seed corn planted in the ground and, through her choices, the consumer-farmer-investor implicitly determines the corn's own rate-of-return (interest rate) that ensures optimal production. As such, any departures from full utilisation of capacity and labour can only be the temporary result of optimal though costly processes of adjustment. Macroeconomic behaviour and outcomes that are still not adequately explained by more complex models include: (1) the existence of very high average propensities to save for wealthy households; (2) the phenomenon of liquidity preference, which explains the desire to hold money on the part of investors and determines short-run equilibrium in the market for both real and financial assets while providing a partial explanation for obstructions within the monetary circuit. In this context, it is argued that the process of expectations-formation is best seen as something that is fragile, contingent, and potentially subject to dramatic revision.</span></p> Adam Kaczynski James Juniper Copyright (c) 2022 Adam Kaczynski, James Juniper 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3912 Implementation of Circular Economy in Peatlands to Support Sustainable Food Security in Post Covid-19 Era <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The peatlands in Indonesia have changed quite a lot in recent years due to over-exploitation and climate change. The land-use change on peatlands resulted in soil infertility. The impacts of the degradation of peatlands are almost certain to worsen with the COVID-19 pandemic because the peatlands have an important role in providing food resources. Therefore, the peatlands restoration must be carried out considering the importance of the peatlands as food resources and carbon capture. One of the alternative solutions is to recycle the waste from agroforestry into organic fertiliser. This study aimed to investigate the application of organic fertiliser to restore soil fertility in the peatlands. The study also offered the circular economy scheme that can be applied in the peatlands to restore sustainability. The results showed that the degraded peatland that has been restored by adding organic fertiliser from local sources has a higher soil pH level than the one without adding organic fertiliser. The increase in pH level can decrease soil hydrophobicity and increase microorganism activities, encouraging biodiversity in the peatlands. In this study, the circular economy scheme by the integration between agroforestry and livestock was assessed economically and environmentally. Recycling cows’ manure and leaf litter from peatlands into energy and recycling biogas sludge into biochar for biogas purification and soil enrichment benefit economically and contribute to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.</span></p> Ambar Pertiwiningrum Margaretha Arnita Wuri Catur Sugiyanto Copyright (c) 2022 Ambar Pertiwiningrum, Margaretha Arnita Wuri, Catur Sugiyanto 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3913 Challenges of Integrating Emotion into a Theoretical Framework in a Higher Education Investment Course <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">COVID-19 has changed many aspects of our daily life. In order to minimise the spread of the virus, social interaction was restricted, and as a result, community gatherings became less than before. The social restriction has created an opportunity in the digital economy; specifically, it has boosted the number of retail investors in Indonesia. Investment is a compulsory subject taught to business students, and the emergence of retail investors deserves special attention in our syllabus. However, fundamental theories of investment that are being taught in current education systems only focus on the cognitive aspect and theoretical framework to measure investment risk without any learning experience on the emotional part. This research argues that without emotion, the investment framework is not complete. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate the ongoing investment course at Pradita University and provide suggestions for a future class. An independent t-test is conducted to measure the perceived emotional feeling between a group of students with trading or simulation experience and the inexperienced group. The outcomes of this research could contribute to the body of knowledge to build a proper syllabus for investment courses for higher education.</span></p> Andreas Kiky Copyright (c) 2022 Andreas Kiky 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3915 Happiness and Self as Social Constructs- an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Buddhist Practitioners Transcendence <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The paper explores the role of Buddhist Practices like meditation and chanting in causing personal transcendence and, through the journey of personal transformation, analyses the development of key resilient competencies and spiritual intelligence in individuals. The study's theoretical framework is Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy because it helps provide a comprehensive and multicultural viewpoint. The study is qualitative. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and the method of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was employed to understand the participants' experiences. Using an inductive approach, three themes were generated, leading to discussion and conclusion. The study is significant because the findings can contribute to building a theory of individual resilience.</span></p> Mansi Kapoor Pooja Darda Copyright (c) 2022 Mansi Kapoor, Pooja Darda 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3916 Human Mobility and Dismantling Cultural Dominance <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The rapidly increasing effects of globalisation is currently challenging many countries in ASEAN to think more creatively around their approach to human capability development to ensure economic viability. The intensified crossing of national and cultural borders, the emergence of transcendent communication technologies, and the increasing ease of human mobility are reshaping our approaches to international engagement and collaboration. These cross-cultural interactions will become even more important in a post-Covid-19 world as markets and trade open and a renewed effort to aggressively compete for limited talent begins. The future of the workforce is facing significant disruptions, and the competition for talent takes place from a global pool in which many nations are competing. This paper argues that intercultural approaches in business and management are critical to operating in this global environment. In an attempt to more clearly understand the intercultural management approaches needed in this interconnected, interdependent and globalised trading environment, this paper has used an action research approach to examine what (Hollingsworth &amp; Cody, 1995) describes as ‘relational knowledge’. These structured collaborative conversations have their origins in practitioner interactions within human capability development interventions in Indonesia. It is intended that the cultural responses received from our Indonesian project partners and collaborators will form the basis for a meaningful approach to respectful engagement. By framing the action research cycle through an examination of the impacts on human mobility, we can reveal the layers of cultural dominance. The authors concur with (Nagle, 2009) and (Rattansi, 2011), who both view interculturalism as a valuable enabler to encourage cross-cultural dialogue and challenge self-segregation tendencies within cultures.</span></p> Brian Fairman Adam Voak Hurriyet Babacan Copyright (c) 2022 Brian Fairman, Adam Voak, Hurriyet Babacan 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3917 Pathways for Urban Food Security in the Pacific <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The urban context is often sidelined in the academic discourse surrounding food security in the Pacific. Yet, for some Pacific nations, cities are the home for most of their citizens. In this thematic literature review, we direct our attention toward the increasingly important topic of food security in Pacific cities. We investigate how the urban informal food sector historically has provided a baseline of food security in Pacific cities. The production, livelihood, and exchange practices that define the urban informal food sector can be traced back to the forms of urbanisation and migration that occurred in the post-independence era in the Pacific. However, we also identify how urban formalisation and globalisation are undermining the key tenets of social relationality that the informal food sector relies upon. As such, the forms of food security provided by the urban informal food sector are being slowly eroded. By identifying these disruptions to the informal urban food sector, we identify pragmatic pathways to develop the basis of a conceptual framework for urban food security in the Pacific. These pathways revolve around invigorating the forms of social relationality within the informal food sector's production, livelihood, and exchange practices.</span></p> Lucas Watt Roxane de Waegh Greg Watt Copyright (c) 2022 Lucas Watt, Roxane de Waegh, Greg Watt 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3918 AI-enabled Integration in the Supply Chain <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">Artificial Intelligence (AI) is getting increased attention from various manufacturing industries, including fashion and textiles, due to its ability to work effectively, similar to human intelligence. This Systematic Literature Review (SLR) paper proposes potential future research directions that emphasize the impacts of AI on supply chain integration (SCI) efforts through information sharing (IS). A structured literature review of articles in the 2010-2021 period, addressing geographic location, journals, publishers, authors, research designs, and applied theories, has been used to prepare this paper. The additional discussion of AI incorporates information from the structured review to conclude the findings and suggest future research directions. The authors have used the Scopus database and prestigious peer-reviewed journals to search for relevant papers using suitable keywords. This paper concluded that the Asian region has the highest concentration of publications and that AI adoption positively affects the IS-SCI relationship. Empirical quantitative research design and resource-based view theory are prominent among the reviewed publications. This SLR paper is limited by not having the impacts of AI discussed at the subset level.</span></p> Manh-Kha Kieu Rajkishore Nayak Mohammadreza Akbari Copyright (c) 2022 Manh-Kha Kieu, Rajkishore Nayak, Mohammadreza Akbari 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3919 Renewable Energy Householders in the Sunshine State <p>Rooftop solar PV installations have experienced rapid and unprecedented growth in Australia. However, one issue that contributes to inefficiencies in the electricity market is the ‘solar rebound effect’ which refers to the reduction in expected gains from eco-efficient technologies due to an increase in the use of the resource. However, little literature exists that incorporates consumers’ cognitions into studies of the solar rebound effect in Australia. This study aims to bridge a research gap by examining consumer perceptions of the solar rebound effect after installing rooftop solar, along with the psychological factors that might play a role in mitigating the solar rebound effects. A quantitative methodology was adopted, and a pilot survey was administered to residents (n=68) in a regional city. Frequency distributions and non-parametric tests were undertaken. The results indicate significant differences between those who report a solar rebound effect and those who do not, relating to factors such as thermal comfort, bill consciousness and an environmental self-identity. Implications for future research and practice are outlined in the paper.</p> Breda McCarthy Copyright (c) 2022 Breda McCarthy 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3914 The Changing Role of Regional Australian Destination Management Organisations in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">This study explores the changing role of Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic within the regional context of Tropical North Queensland. A case study of a Regional Tourism Organisation (RTO) is utilised to gain insights into external and internal stakeholder perspectives on the changing role of DMOs in response to COVID-19. This research adopts a qualitative approach to investigate insights into the specific phenomenon of the changing role of regional DMOs in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The research was conducted in two stages: semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis of the transcripts. This research project (including methodologies engaged) was approved by James Cook University’s Human Research Ethics Committee, reference number H8559, on September 29 2021. The insights provided suggest that changes made within the RTO were mostly temporary and that there is a desire from external and internal stakeholders for the RTO to return to a marketing function post the acute phase of the Pandemic. Findings indicate that the role of a regional DMO can shift to a role of destination management in times of crisis and then revert to one adapted to marketing functions in the recovery period. Recommendations for the role of destination marketing and management organisations in response to times of crisis are presented and include flexibility of the role of DMOs in crisis management, the requirement for strong leadership and the need for ongoing consultation with the industry about the desired role and function of DMOs.</span></p> Nikki Giumelli Janice Scarinci Denis Tolkach Copyright (c) 2022 Nikki Giumelli, Janice Scarinci, Denis Tolkach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3920 Jogo Tonggo: Utilising Local Wisdom as a Resilient Strategy During COVID-19 Pandemic in Central Java Indonesia <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">Jogo Tonggo - a social activity from, by, and for the community based on local wisdom, is initiated by the Central Java Provincial Government to anticipate the negative implications of COVID-19 on the health, social and economic sectors. However, in practice, the role of formal key figures (Babinsa, Babinkamtibmas, and Village Midwives) and non-formal (RT/RW) in the context of social capital is a determining factor for the success of the implementation of Jogo Tonggo. The study's objective is to analyse the determinants that influence the success of the implementation of Jogo Tonggo in tackling the impact of the spread of COVID-19 on the health, social, and economic sectors of the community. Primary data were obtained through direct interviews with respondents consisting of key formal figures (Babinsa, Babinkamtibmas, Village Midwives), non-formal (RT/RW), and people exposed to COVID-19. Secondary data is obtained from BPS, related ministries and institutions, and the results of previous studies. Data is analysed descriptively and qualitatively. The results showed that Jogo Tonggo's activities in Central Java helped minimise the spread of COVID-19 and helped recover residents affected by COVID-19 through food assistance provided during the quarantine. The assistance provided to the affected communities has also succeeded in preventing social problems and ensuring security. The strength of social capital supported by community participation and the integration between formal and non-formal figures determine the success of the implementation of Jogo Tonggo.</span></p> Wahyudi Hariyanto Komalawati Komalawati Anggi Sahru Romdon Renie Oelviani Seno Basuki Budi Utomo Copyright (c) 2022 Wahyudi Hariyanto, Komalawati Komalawati, Anggi Sahru Romdon, Renie Oelviani, Seno Basuki, Budi Utomo 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3921 Macroeconomic Impacts of Declining Wage Share in National Income <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">The study aims to lay down a parsimonious and tractable stock-flow-consistent macroeconomic modelling approach to enhance the analysis of identification and investigation of the key underlying causes of the macroeconomic and financial instability in the context of the 2007–2008 Global Financial Crises (GFC) and COVID-19 pandemic. The model has the following key features. First, the assets and liabilities of the four major sectors, households, firms, commercial banks and government, are explicitly formalised by considering the accounting flow of the fund approach. Second, the behaviour of each sector has been derived and analysed based on accounting identities derived from the transaction flow matrix. Third, the model is calibrated and simulated by determining the values of the parameters and the exogenous variables based on the US macroeconomic data. Fourth, the most relevant simulation experiments and their results have been sufficiently analysed to produce forecasts and provide specific policy recommendations. The findings suggest that a decline in the wage share in the national income was seen to have undermined financial and macroeconomic stability in the US (and elsewhere). The results concur with the experience of current economic crises that are associated with the impact of COVID-19.</span></p> Tajkira Khandoker James Juniper Copyright (c) 2022 Tajkira Khandoker, James Juniper 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3922 Consumers' Use of Smartphone Technology for Travel and Tourism in a COVID Era <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 150%;">Mobile phone technology has become a necessary component for today's travellers. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have substantially affected tourism and hospitality consumers over the past two decades. Mobile technologies such as smartphones, tablets, and mobile applications have become travellers' primary access to information. This study focuses on mobile technologies such as smartphones and mobile applications (apps) and consumers' use of mobile technology when travelling. A scoping review following PRISMA guidelines was used to answer the research question; "How do tourism consumers use mobile technologies for travel and tourism during the COVID era?" This study will identify and analyse any relationships, patterns, trends, and gaps in the literature. Peer-reviewed journal articles from the COVID era (2020 to 2022) were included in this study. Articles were sourced using the keywords listed below. The full articles were imported into NVivo, and the main themes and subthemes were extracted from the data and reported using an inductive qualitative thematic analysis. The results from this study identified "food" as the main theme and "food delivery" as the most frequent subtheme. Food, tourism, transportation, Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), Hotel Operations, and Shopping were the top 6 themes. The 4IR is changing how smartphone consumers use their devices for travel and tourism. In the COVID Era, Smartphone technology has been recognised as a solution to maintaining safe distancing and contactless transactions. This research will benefit tourism operators and policymakers to remain competitive in an ever-changing environment during the COVID era</span></p> Gary Myers Janice Scarinci Copyright (c) 2022 Gary Myers , Janice Scarinci 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 2 1 10.25120/jre.2.1.2022.3923